This section covers the work of three separate groups in society:
- elected officials – people who make and carry out drug policies
- lawmakers – people who influence drug policy
- scholars and journalists – people who write about drug policy
However, the information provided is for anyone who is concerned about their own drug use, their children’s use of substances, or the use of substances in their communities. It is not self-help, although some may find personal benefit from learning more about the government is dealing with the problem of addiction.
Strategies to disrupt the production and supply of illicit drugs and the control and regulation of licit substances
A.1. Drug-Specific Supply Measures
A.1.1. Physical Drug Availability
A.1.1.1. Source Country Control
-alternative crop measures
A.1.1.2. Border Control
-customs seizures (smuggling)
A.1.1.3. Domestic Drug Law Enforcement
A.1.2. Diversion Control
A.1.3. Money Laundering
A.2. Alcohol- and Tobacco-Specific Supply Measures
A.2.1. Physical Alcohol Availability
A.2.1.1. Commercial Access Policies
-legal purchase age legislation
-liquor control boards
A.2.1.2. Social Access Policies
-municipal alcohol policies
-beer keg registration
-social host liability
A.2.2. Physical Tobacco Availability
-legal purchase age legislation
B.1. General Demand Measures
B.1.1. Social Policy
B.1.2. Addiction Prevention
-environmental prevention strategies
B.1.3. Addiction Treatment
B.2. Drug-Specific Demand Measures
B.3. Alcohol- and Tobacco-Specific Demand Measures
-taxation and pricing
Taxation and pricing policy impacts the ability of the consumer to afford alcohol and tobacco products. Studies have shown that reducing the price of alcohol during “happy hours” has resulted in significant increases among both light and heavy drinkers ¹.
In a commissioned study, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences estimated that “an increase in the liquor excise tax of one dollar per proof gallon reduces the liver cirrhosis mortality rate by 5.4% in the short run and by perhaps twice that amount in the long run” ².
(1) Source: Babor, T., Mendelson, J., Greenberg, I. & Kuehnle, J. Experimental analysis of the happy hour: Effects of purchase price on alcohol consumption. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 1978, 58, 35-41.
(2) Source: Cook, P., & Tauchen, G. The effect of liquor taxes on alcoholism. Paper presented at the Conference on Economic Aspects of the Use and Misuse of Alcohol, University of Essex, England, November, 1981.
-advertising and promotion restrictions
-health education and warning labels
-impaired driver programs
-nicotine replacement therapy
-general harm reduction
-for heroin use
-for alcohol consumption
-for other drugs
Strategies to reduce drug related harm to individuals and communities.
D.1. Supply Reduction in Correctional Settings
-drug detection dogs
D.2. Demand Reduction in Correctional Settings
-drug testing programs
-methadone and other replacement therapies
-inmate programs & counselling services
D.3. Harm Reduction in Correctional Settings
-harm reduction education
-peer education programs
-blood-borne virus testing
-hepatitis B vaccination
-needle exchange programs
Alcohol control policies include ". . .the entire constellation of laws and regulations at the federal, state, county, and city levels that affect how alcoholic beverages are manufactured, packaged, distributed, sold, and consumed” ¹.
Demand reduction efforts cannot lead to success without substantially reducing the illicit drug supply: if drugs are readily available and easily accessible, new drug abusers will soon replace former ones. At the same time, there is evidence that elimination of a given drug from the market does not mean the elimination of the drug problem but only a shift towards other drugs or substances of abuse. Consequently, without efforts to reduce illicit drug demand, actions aimed at reducing illicit drug supply will lead to only temporary successes.
Source: Drug Demand Reduction (1998) International Narcotics Control Board.
Supply reduction strategies are designed to disrupt the production and supply of legal and illicit drugs.
Just as it is important to influence general attitudes towards drug use and abuse, so it is also important to try to restrict the availability of these drugs. Drug availability itself contributes to the overall atmosphere favouring drug promotion, which is why it is necessary to maintain vigilance concerning the supply of illicit drugs. A reduction in the supply of illicit drugs can be made in several ways: by restricting the importation, manufacture and production of illicit drugs; by limiting the availability of the source material or the precursors, the substances used to manufacture them; by reducing the availability of drugs at the street level; and by complementing such attempts by effective demand reduction program.
Source: Drug Demand Reduction (1998) International Narcotics Control Board.
How Demand Reduction Success is Measured
Demand reduction strategies are designed to prevent harmful drug use. The success of demand reduction is measured by a reduction in the amount of abstinence and is therefore separate and distinct from harm reduction.
The success of demand reduction programs depends on two factors: the political will of governments to tackle the problem, as evidenced by, among other things, the provision of the necessary financial resources; and the community’s willingness to cooperate. Without following "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches simultaneously, it is not realistic to expect positive results from demand reduction programs.
For prevention programs to be effective, they must start early, be comprehensive and tailor their messages to the market. They must also be sustained and must maintain their credibility by not exaggerating or understating the consequences of drug abuse. It is the belief of the Board that, if these principles are followed and if sufficient resources are allocated to this end, preventive measures can have a real impact on the problem of drug abuse.
Source: Demand Reduction: A Glossary of Terms (2000) United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP).
Source: Drug Demand Reduction (1998) International Narcotics Control Board.
Harm reduction strategies aim to reduce harm for particular individuals and communities. For more information see the Harm Reduction section.
The Board acknowledges the importance of certain aspects of "harm reduction" as a tertiary prevention strategy for demand reduction purposes. The Board considers it its duty, however, to draw the attention of Governments to the fact that "harm reduction" programs are not substitutes for demand reduction programs.
Source: Drug Demand Reduction (1998) International Narcotics Control Board.
Printed Resources – General Information on Drug Policy
Drug Addiction and Drug Policy: The Struggle to Control Dependence (2001) exposes the reader to aspects of America’s drug policy through conversations with distinguished scholars in law, public policy, medicine, and biopsychology. Philip B. Heymann, William N. Brownsberger.
Drugs: Cultures, Controls and Everyday Life(1999) examines whether a process of normalization of drugs and drug use is under way; prohibition versus legislation, policing strategies and controlling drug users, drug control and sport, etc. Nigel South.
Drug Policy and Human Nature: Psychological Perspectives on the Prevention, Management, and Treatment of Illicit Drug Abuse (1996) provides a thorough psychological analysis of the relationship between drugs, culture, and human nature and facilitates a more collaborative and effective approach to improving American drug policy. Edited by Warren K. Bickel and Richard J. DeGrandpre.
Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration (2007) discusses the physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects of legal and illicit drugs, the patterns and correlates of use, and theories of the causes of drug use. Examines and critiques drug policies in the US and abroad in terms of their scope, goals, and effectiveness. Clayton James Mosher, Scott Akins.
Drugs and Rights(1992) asks the question: Do adults have a moral right to use drugs for recreational purposes? Argues that the “war on drugs” violates the moral rights of adults who want to use drugs for pleasure. Douglas N. Husak.
Global Habit: The Drug Problem in a Borderless World (1996) presents a compelling portrait of the global drug market and the consequences of this international plague. According to Stares, the effectiveness of reorienting drug control policy to curb the global habit will ultimately depend on the international community’s willingness to address much larger concerns to which the drug problem is inextricably linked. Paul B. Stares.
Illicit Drugs: Use and Control(2003)locates illicit drug use in its wider context, with chapters on the history of illicit drug use, measuring the ‘problem’, legal and medical responses to illicit drug use, illicit drugs market, and trends in drug policy. Adrian Barton.
The Political Economy of Narcotics: Production, Consumption and Global Markets(2006) explores the origins, history and organization of the international system of narcotic drug control with a specific focus on heroin, cannabis and cocaine. Argues that the century-long quest to eliminate the production, trade in and use of narcotic drugs has been a failure. Julia Buxton.
Printed Resources – Advertising and Drug Policy
Effects of the Mass Media on the Use & Abuse of Alcohol (1995) assesses the presentation of alcohol in the mass media. Susan E. Martin, Research Monograph 28, NIH Publication No. 95-3743, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).
Printed Resources – Alcohol and Drug Policy
Alcohol in America(1985) presents alcohol control measures in both a historical and scientific context that builds strong arguments for implementing contemporary controls. Steve Olsen, Dean R. Gerstein.
Alcohol and Emerging Markets: Patterns, Problems, and Responses (1998) is a series of case studies that assess alcohol issues in four regions and four countries – China, India, Mexico, and Russia. Includes issues such as past and present public policy developments, prevention programs, and treatment. Marcus Grant.
Alcohol and Pleasure: A Health Perspective suggests that, if pleasure is taken as an important indicator of health, there is ground for formulating more flexible alcohol policies. Stanton Peele, Marcus Grant.
Drinking Patterns and their Consequences(1998) argues that the use of average daily per capita consumption is no longer an effective way to formulate an effective alcohol policy. Suggests a new approach that addresses an array of different drinking styles, different outcomes, and markedly different cultural contexts. Marcus Grant, Jorge Litvak.
From Science to Action?: 100 Years Later – Alcohol Policies Revisited(2004) sheds light over how alcohol policies have changed over the past 100 years. Richard Muller, Harald Klingemann.
For more information on alcohol see the Alcohol section.
Printed Resources – Australia and Drug Policy
Drug Prohibition: A Call for Change (1996) explains why arguments against prohibition matter, how prohibition developed, whether it works and what alternatives exist. Provided from an Australian context. Alex Wodak, Ron Owens.
Printed Resources – Canada and Drug Policy
Jailed for Possession: Illegal Drug Use, Regulation, and Power in Canada, 1920-1961 (2006) documents the social history of drug use and drug regulation in Canada. Shows how the regulation of illicit drugs impacted drug users, police officers, doctors, and social workers. Catherine Carstairs.
Not This Time: Canadians, Public Policy, and the Marijuana Question, 1961-1975 (2006) explores the social issues surrounding marijuana use in Canada throughout the 1960s. Marcel Martel.
Printed Resources – Crime and Drug Policy
Illicit Flows and Criminal Things: States, Borders, and the Other Side of Globalization (2005) distinguishes between “organized” crime and the thousands of illicit acts that take place across national borders every day. Allows us to understand how states, borders, and the language of law enforcement produce criminality. Willem van Schendel, Itty Abraham.
Printed Resources – Enforcement and Drug Policy
Traffickers: Drug Markets and Law Enforcementpresents new findings on the world of drug trafficking described in the words of traffickers and detectives. Drug enforcement combines the banal and spectacular in surveillance, covert operations and criminal intelligence. Nicholas Dorn, Karim Murji, Nigel South.
Printed Resources – Europe and Drug Policy
Between Prohibition and Legalization: The Dutch Experiment in Drug Policy (1994) attempts to debunk some of the myths about drug policy in the Netherlands as well as how and why Dutch drug policy is so different from the US and other European countries. Ed Leuw, Ineke Haen Marshall.
The Control of Drugs and Drug Users: Reason or Reaction? (1998) Reviews important aspects of past and current drug control policies in Britain and America. Ross Coomber.
Dealing with Drugs in Europe – An Investigation of European Drug Control Experiences: France, the Netherlands and Swedenexplores justifications and rationalizations for the divergent, and even contradictory attitudes towards drugs in France, the Netherlands and Sweden. Tim Boekhout, Van Solinge.
European Drug Policies and Enforcement(1996) presents experiences of drug policy-making at all levels of government in Europe including drug control through money laundering countermeasures, trade and development policies, and security. Nicholas Dorn, Jergen Jepsen, Ernesto Ugo Savona.
Policies and Strategies to Combat Drugs in Europe: The Treaty on (1995) highlights the findings of the 1993 European Scientific Seminar on Strategies and Policies to Combat drugs. Georges Estievenart.
Printed Resources – History of Drug Policy
Drug Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century (1999) is a comprehensive historical account of the evolution of the global drug control regime. William B. McAllister.
Printed Resources – Impaired Driving and Drug Policy
Drunk Driving in America: Strategies and Approaches to Treatment (1986) discusses research, policy, and treatment approaches to one of America’s most serious problems – the drunk driver. Stephen K. Valle.
Printed Resources – Marijuana and Drug Policy
Pot Politics: Marijuana and the Costs of Prohibition (2006) looks at some of the mistaken beliefs that have tainted the discussion on marijuana and drug policy. Mitchell Earleywine.
For more information on marijuana see the Marijuana section.
Printed Resources – Pregnant Mothers and Drug Policy
Smoking and Pregnancy: The Politics of Fetal Protection(2001) charts the emergence of smoking during pregnancy as a public health concern and social problem. Oaks looks at the emphasis public health educators place on individual responsibility, current legal and social assertion of fetal personhood, and the advent of antismoking campaigns. Laury Oaks
For more information on pregnant mothers see the Special Populations section.
Printed Resources – Research on Drug Policy
Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What we Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us (2001) explores the data and research information needed to support strong drug policy analysis, describes the best methods to use, explains how to avoid misleading conclusions, and outlines strategies for increasing access to data. Charles F. Manski, John Pepper, Carol Petrie.
For more information on research see the Addiction Research section.
Printed Resources – Teenagers and Drug Policy
Chilling Out: The cultural politics of substance consumption, youth and drug policy (2004) examines the assumptions underlying drug prohibition and explores the contradictions of drug prevention policies. In addition, it explores the global and political context with a detailed focus on youth culture, on the basis that young people are the primary target of drug prevention policies. Shane Blackman
For more information on adolescents see the Help for Parents & Teens section.
Printed Resources – Tobacco and Drug Policy
Building Blocks for Tobacco Control: A Handbook (2004) identifies the types of capacities needed for effective tobacco control and outlines the key features of building capacity. Annette David, Vera da Costa e Silva.
Control of Tobacco-related Cancers and Other Diseases: Proceedings of an International Symposium (1993) talks about tobacco control as more than simply a health problem but one that requires a multidimensional, multidisciplinary approach. Prakash C. Gupta, James E. Hamner, P . R. Murti, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Basic Dental Research Unit, WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer Prevention.
Nicotine Addiction in Britain(2000) emphasizes the central role of nicotine addiction in smoking and makes recommendations for public health measures to regulate and control availability of nicotine from tobacco products. Royal College of Physicians of London.
Nicotine and Public Health(2000) is a very thorough examination of a range of delivery systems, including traditional, therapeutic and innovative. Designed for all substance abuse researchers, policy-makers, public health educators, community health practitioners and public health researchers. Roberta G. Ferrence, Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel.
Tobacco Control: Comparative Politices in the United States and Canada (2002) describes the course of tobacco control policy, both regulation and taxation, in each country, and on several different levels of government.
Tobacco Control Policy: Strategies, Successes, and Setbacks (2003) draws lessons for other countries based on six case studies of sound tobacco control policies from Brazil, Bangladesh, Canada, Poland, South Africa, and Thailand. Joy De Beyer, Linda Waverley Brigden.
Tobacco and Public Health: Science and Policy(2006) covers the science and policy issues relevant to one of the major public health issues of modern times. Peter Boyle, Nigel Gray, Jack Henningford, John Seffrin, Witold Zatonski.
For more information on tobacco see the Tobacco section.
Printed Resources – The United States of America and Drug Policy
Against Excess: Drug Policy for Results (1992) explains why and how drugs in general -including currently legal drugs – are unlike other consumer drugs in ways that justify governmental control over their distribution and use. Exclusively focused on US drug policy. Mark A.R. Kleiman.
The Drug Legalization Debate (2nd Ed.) (1996) offers several alternatives and addresses the major issues involved in the continuing drug legalization debate including the history of drug use and abuse in America and the federal government’s approach to drug control. James A. Inciardi.
Drugs in America: Sociology, Economics, and Politics (1998) is a study of drugs and drug control in America. Ansley Hamid.
Federal Drug Control: The Evolution of Policy and Practice (2004) presents an overview of the key issues and key individuals responsible for the creation of the federal government’s efforts to control illegal drugs in the United States from 1875-2001. Jonathon Erlen, Joseph F. Spillane.
Handbook of Drug Control in the United States(1990) offers a useful way of thinking about the problem, which, while not a solution in itself, provides the tools necessary to develop a realistic and effective national drug policy. James A. Inciardi.
National Drug Control Strategy: A Nation Responds to Drug Use(January 1992) lays out a comprehensive plan for Federal drug control activities. White House.
National Drug Control Strategy(1997) is the US Government’s 10-year plan to reduce drug-related crime & violence; reduce health & social problems; shield our frontiers; reduce drug availability); & resources to implement the strategy. Barry R. McCaffrey, Office of National Drug Control Policy.
Public Policy and the Problem of Addiction: Four Studies, 1914-1924(1981) is a reprint of the four reports submitted by the Commission to Investigate Drunkenness in Massachusetts between 1914 and 1924. Gerald N. Grob.
Printed Resources – The War on Drugs as a Drug Policy
Addicted to Failure: US Security Policy in Latin America and the Andean Region(2006) critically explores why the United States continues to pursue failed policies in Latin America. Scholars explain how policies intended to promote the rule of law instead generate corruption and institutional crisis in Latin American countries. Brian Loveman.
Bad Neighbor Policy: Washington’s Futile War on Drugs in Latin America(2003) chronicles our disenchantment with the hemispheric drug war. Some prominent Latin American political leaders have finally dared to criticize Washington while at the same time, the U.S. government seems determined to perpetuate, if not intensify, the anti-drug crusade. Ted Galen Carpenter
Beyond the War on Drugs: Overcoming a Failed Public Policy (1990) argues that the US policy on drugs is unworkable and examines what has been accomplished so far, and suggests a reassessment. Steven Wisotsky, Thomas Szasz.
The Bullet or the Bribe: Taking Down Colombia’s Cali Drug Cartel(2003) is the story of how the anti-drug forces finally brought down the world’s most powerful drug trafficking mafia. A story of big business, greed, violence, and corruption. Ron Chepesiuk.
Busted: Stone Cowboys, Narco-Lords, and Washington’s War on Drugs (2002) tells readers why the war on drugs has failed, charting the violence, chaos, and corruption that the War on Drugs has spawned. It includes frontline reporting from all over the world, literary journalism, public records, and provocative commentary from the left and right. Mike Gray
Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America (1998) shows that under the cover of national security and covert operations, the U.S. government has repeatedly collaborated with and protected major international drug traffickers. Based on the controversial series of stories originally published by the San Jose Mercury News. Peter Dale Scott, Jonathan Marshall.
Colombia and the United States: War, Unrest, and Destabilization (2004) explores the devastating impact that misdirected U.S. military "aid"-under the banner of "the war on drugs"-continues to have on the people of Colombia. They argue that the conflict in Colombia is not about drugs, nor guerillas, nor "terrorism," but rather about the unwillingness of the country’s elite to open up spaces for truly democratic development. Mario A. Murillo, Jesus Rey Avirama.
Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability(2001) examines the sources of instability in the country; the objectives, strategy, strengths, and weaknesses of the government, guerrillas, and paramilitaries and the balances among them; and the effects of the current U.S. assistance program. Angel Rabasa, Peter Chalk.
Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion (1999) shows how the LA crack market flourished through a combination of government negligence, greed, and criminal conduct. Includes how the CIA and NSC worked with drug dealers to fund right-wing Latin American guerillas. Gary Webb
Driven by Drugs: US Policy Toward Colombia (2002) offers a clear and concise analysis of the evolution and present dynamics of US policy toward Colombia, which is a large recipient of US foreign aid – most slated for antidrug efforts. Russell Crandall.
Drug Control in the Americas (1981) William O. Walker
Drug War Addiction (2001) Bill Masters
Drug War Crimes: The Consequences of Prohibition (2004) Jeffrey A. Miron
Drug War Politics: The Price of Denial (1996) makes a case for bringing public-health principles to bear on the drug epidemic. Eva Bertram, Morris Blachman, Kenneth Sharpe, Peter Andreas
Drug War Heresies: Learning from Other Vices, Times and Places (2001) provides the first multidisciplinary and nonpartisan analysis of how the United States should decide on the legal status of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. Robert J. MacCoun, RAND Studies in Policy Analysis.
Drugs and Democracy in Latin America: The Impact of US Policy(2005) is a country-by-country analysis of the impact of US drug policy on the politics and lives of its southern neighbours. Coletta A. Youngers, Eileen Rosin (Eds.).
Drugs and Drug Policy in America: A Documentary History (2000) Steven R. Belenko (ed.)
Drug Wars: The Political Economy of Narcotics (2004) Curtis Marez
Ending the War on Drugs (2000) Dirk Chase Eldredge
The Enemy Is Us: How to Defeat Drug Abuse and End the "War on Drugs" (1997) Robert H. Dowd
How Goes the "War on Drugs"?: An Assessment of US Drug Problems and Policyis a concise, accessible, objective view of where the United States has been, now stands, and is going in the future in its long war on drugs. Jonathan Paul Caulkins, RAND Drug Policy Research Center.
Inside Colombia: Drugs, Democracy and War (2004)
Lies, Damned Lies, and Drug War Statistics: A Critical Analysis of Claims Made by the Office of National Drug Control Policy(2007) is a critical examination of six years (2000-2006) of the National Drug Control Policy Strategy. Matt B. Robinson, Renee G. Scherlen.
Lost History: Contras, Cocaine, the Press & ‘Project Truth’ [UNABRIDGED] (1999) Robert Parry
More Terrible Than Death: Massacres, Drugs, And America’s War in Columbia (2004) is an insider’s analysis of the political realities that shape the expanding war on drugs and the growing U.S. military presence there. Robin Kirk
NarcoDiplomacy: Exporting the US War on Drugs (1996) looks at German and Japanese cooperation with America’s global war on drugs. H. Richard Friman
Pipe Dream Blues: Racism and the War on Drugs (1991) Clarence Lusane
The Politics of Sin: Drugs, Alcohol, and Public Policy (1994) Kenneth J. Meier
Political Economy and Illegal Drugs in Colombia Francisco E. Thoumi.
Powderburns: Cocaine, Contras & The Drug War(1994)Celerino Castillo III & Dave Harman
Snow job?: the war against international cocaine trafficking (1996) is the first effort to put together a sensible economic analysis of the limits of foreign drug control with an understanding of the political consequences of aggressive US interventions against the Andean countries. Kevin Jack Riley.
The War on Drugs: Heroin, Cocaine, Crime, and Public Policy (1986) James A. Inciardi
Under the Influence(2004) argues that the War on Drugs is not a success, nor is it winnable. Opposition to the war on drugs is profiled from an unprecedented chorus of voices covering every facet of the War on Drugs. Preston Peet.
Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press (1999) investigate the CIA’s 50-year-long intimacy with criminal organizations and drug trafficking. Alexander Cockburn, Jeffrey St. Clair
Why Our Drug Laws Have Failed: A Judicial Indictment of War on Drugs (2001) James Gray
Printed Resources – Women and Drug Policy
Using Women: Gender, Drug Policy, and Social Justice (2000) chronicles the history of women and drug use and how drug policy has addressed the issue. Nancy Duff Campbell
For more information on women and addiction see the Special Population section.
Websites Specific to Drug Policy
Websites Specific to Drug Policy Reform
The Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network
The Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA)
Canadian Executive Council on Addictions
Canadian Media Awareness Project
Canadian Students for Sensible Drug Policy (US)
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health,
Centre for Addictions Research of B.C.
Common Sense for Drug Policy (US)
John Howard Society of Canada
Physicians and Lawyers for National Drug Policy
Unitarian Universalists for Drug Policy Reform
Online Resources – Aboriginals and Drug Policy
Harm Reduction Policies and Programs for Persons of Aboriginal Descent (June 2007) provides current, objective and empirically-based information to inform the implementation of policies and programs for promoting the reduction of harms associated with substance abuse in Canada. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA).
National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program General Review 1998 (1998) was a comprehensive review of NNADAP. Health Canada.
NNADAP Renewal Framework (December 2000) is a policy guideline for implementing the strategic recommendations of the 1998, General Review of the National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program. National Native Addictions Partnership Foundation, Inc.
Online Resources – Adolescents and Drug Policy
Harm Reduction Policies and Programs for Youth (August 2006) provides current, objective and empirically-based information to inform the implementation of policies and programs for promoting the reduction of harms associated with substance abuse in Canada. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA).
Meeting the Needs of Youth-at-Risk in Canada: Learnings from a National Community Development Project (1997) supports community development and youth participation activities aimed at improving programs and services available to youth-at-risk. Health Canada. H39-411/1997E. For a brief version see the Summary.
Online Resources – Australia and Drug Policy
Policy Positions of the Alcohol and other Drugs Council of Australia (ADCA) (September 2003) is a comprehensive, easy to read overview of the evidence and debate and outlines ADCA’s policy agenda across specific drugs and strategies. It also identifies a number of measures that can be used to monitor Australia’s performance in addressing alcohol and other drug related issues. Alcohol and Other Drugs Council of Australia (ADCA).
Making Values and Ethics Explicit: The Development and Application of a Revised Code of Ethics for the Australian Alcohol and Other Drug Field (March 2007) is a discussion paper. Alcohol and Other Drugs Council of Australia.
Supply, Demand, and Harm Reduction Strategies in Australian Prisons (July 2004) Emma Black, Kate Dolan, Alex Wodak, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Australian National Council on Drugs.
Online Resources – Canada and Drug Policy
Out of the Shadows at Last: Transforming Mental Health, Mental Illness and Addiction Services in Canada (May 2006) is the report from the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology.
Online Resources – Demand Reduction
Demand Reduction: A Glossary of Terms (2000) United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP).
Online Resources – Economics and Drug Policy
Economic Benefits of Drug Treatment: A Critical Review of the Evidence for Policy Makers (February 2005) finds that most substance abuse treatment interventions yield net economic benefits to society. Treatment Research Institute at the University of Pennsylvania.
Online Resources – Gay, Lesbians, Bisexual, and Transgender (GLBT) and Drug Policy
Healthy People 2010(2001) has a list of recommendations for reducing the incidence of drug and alcohol abuse in the GLBT community. Gay and Lesbian Medical Association.
For more information on gay, lesbians, bisexual, and transgender see the Special Populations section.
Online Resources – Harm Reduction and Drug Policy
Harm Reduction Policies and Programs for Persons of Aboriginal Descent (June 2007) is intended to help better define harm reduction and to identify Canadian examples of harm reduction policies and programs used by Aboriginal peoples. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA).
Harm Reduction Policies and Programs for Persons Involved in the Criminal Justice System (May 2005) reviews policies and programs available for reducing harms related to substance abuse among persons involved in the criminal justice system. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA).
Harm Reduction Policies and Programs for Youth (August 2006) is designed to stimulate discussion about this topic by critically appraising the theoretical and empirical basis of harm reduction as a potential philosophy and goal of policies and programs addressing substance use and abuse among youth in Canada. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA).
Hidden Harm Next Steps: Support Children – Working with Parents (2006) sets out what the Scottish government is doing to bring about improvements in helping children who have parents struggling with substance abuse. Scottish Executive. ISBN 0-7559-4923-4.
Injecting and sharing of crack-smoking materials, decline as safer crack-smoking resources are distributed (February 2007) International Journal of Drug Policy. Lynne Leonard, Emily DeRubeis, et al., Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa.
See the Harm Reduction section for more information on harm reduction.
Online Resources – Municipal Alcohol Policies
Municipal Alcohol Policies (2007) offer communities one strategy for preventing problems related to alcohol service on municipally-owned property or municipally sponsored events. Alcohol Policy Network.
Online Resources – Research on Drug Policy
CESAR is a database of articles on addiction trends and issues for policymakers; prevention specialists, treatment and health care providers; law enforcement officials; researchers and academicians; and media representatives.
For more information on research see the Addiction Research section.
Online Resources – Supply Reduction
Controlled Substances in Alphabetical Order is a list that describes the basic or parent chemical and does not describe the salts, isomers and salts of isomers, esters, ethers and derivatives which may also be controlled substances. Office of Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration, US Department of Justice.
National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws has a prescription drug monitoring project which addresses the diversion of, abuse of, and addiction to prescription drugs.
Synthetics Strategy is a report from the Office of National Drug Control Policy and is a companion document to the President’s National Drug Control Strategy. It details plans for unprecedented cooperation with Mexico and other international partners to drastically reduce the flow into the United States of both methamphetamine and the precursor chemicals used to produce the drug.
Video Resources – The Netherlands and Drug Policy
Quaker Hans Weening Defends Dutch Drug Policy is an interview with a Dutch representative from the Quaker church