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Social Modalities


I.A. Brief Motivational Counselling

I.B. Setting-Specific Interventions

B.1. medical interventions

B.2. family interventions

B.3. community interventions

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II.A. Harm Reduction for Heroin Addiction

A.1. needle exchange

A.2. supervised injection

A.3. methadone maintenance therapy

A.4. prescribed heroin

II.B. Harm Reduction for Alcoholism

B.1. wet housing

II.C. Harm Reduction for Other Drugs

C.1. pill warnings for ecstasy and other hallucinogens

C.2. early warning systems

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III.A. Pre-Treatment Engagement

A.1. community outreach

A.2. pre-treatment support services

III.B. In-Treatment Recovery Support Services

B.1. case management

III.C. Post-Treatment Continuing Care

C.1. monitoring

C.2. recovery education & coaching

C.3. assertive linkage

C.4. early re-intervention




General Reading on Social Modalities

Beliefs, Behaviors, & Alcoholic Beverages: A Cross-Cultural Survey (1979) is a series of essays on the use of alcoholic beverages within diverse societies and cultures. Mac Marshall.

Drugs, Alcohol, and Society: Social Structure, Process, and Policy (1992) draws from socio-cultural and social psychological theories and using a social learning perspective as the unifying perspective. Ronald L. Akers.

Socialization in Drug Abuse (1976) contends that drug abuse is a social problem and that in each of its particular aspects – medical, psychological, legal, etc. – there is a crucial, and often unrecognized, social dimension. Robert H. Coombs, Lincoln J. Fry, Patricia G. Lewis.

Society, Culture, and Drinking Patterns (1977) provides a sociological study of normal and pathological drinking patterns in American society. David Joshua Pittman, Charles R. Snyder.

Printed Resources – Harm Reduction as a Social Modality

Harm Reduction Psychotherapy: A New Treatment for Drug and Alcohol Problems (2007) shows how a relaxed emphasis on abstinence can have dramatic implications for improving the effectiveness of psychotherapy in many ways. Andrew Tatarsky.

Over the Influence: The Harm Reduction Guide for Managing Drugs and Alcohol (2004) is a guide to harm reduction therapy, which calls for identifying and managing the underlying problem while maintaining an “acceptable” or functional level of substance use. Jeannie Little, Adina Glickman

Practicing Harm Reduction Psychotherapy: An Alternative Approach to Addictions (2004) incorporates the goals and methods of harm reduction into a comprehensive psychotherapeutic approach – one that can be incorporate without waiting for abstinence. Patt Denning.

Printed Resources – Public Health as a Social Modality

Changing Addictive Behavior: Bridging Clinical and Public Health (1999) examines theory and research to examine ways that traditional therapeutic treatments can be supplemented by public health interventions that extend the reach and effectiveness of care. Jalie Ann Tucker, Dennis M. Donovan, G. Alan Marlatt.

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My dad and my uncle attended the family program and both of them are very supportive. The family program was nice because it put us on an even level of knowledge so that my dad better understands addiction compared to heavy drinking.

- Nanaimo, BC

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