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INTRODUCTION

Welcome to the Addiction Treatment Resources section. It is difficult to pin down what addiction treatment since, as Jerome Levin ¹ points outs, treatment can be at many levels: molecular (e.g. the use of naltrexone to block the high of opiates), personal (e.g. individual therapy), systemic (e.g. couple or family therapy), or societal (e.g. government alcohol and drug policy).

In the Addiction Treatment Resources section, the focus is on modalities, settings, stages, and addiction theories.

Treatment can be determined by an individual's drug of choice. For example, if the drug is alcohol, there are certain drugs that make the individual violently ill if alcohol is ingested (e.g. disulfiram). If heroin is the drug of choice, there are replacement therapies (e.g. methadone) that can help the individual stabilize enough to live like a "normal person." In addition to drug therapies, there are specific "talk therapies" developed to address the unique aspects of stimulant addiction (e.g. the Matrix model of treatment).

Treatment can also be specific to a certain population group. The treatment of addiction can vary by population. Individuals with co-existing behavioral and substance use disorders need a more integrated approach to treatment where the addiction and the mental illness are treating at the same time (see the Dual Diagnosis section).  Certain sub-groups of society called special populations often require unique approaches to treatment.

See the Resources section below for resources designed specifically for professionals in the fields of addiction, mental health, and medicine.

(1) Source: Couple and Family Therapy of Addiction (1998) J.D. Levin.

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I. ADDICTION TREATMENT MODALITIES

The Institute of Medicine ¹ describes treatment modalities as "the specific activities that are used to relieve symptoms or to induce behaviour change."

The three categories of addiction treatment modalities include:

  1. biological modalities - focus on improved detoxification regimens, pharmacology (anticraving medication, neurobiology, antagonist medication, methadone treatment), nutrition, exercise, complementary therapies, and brief biological interventions
  2. psychological modalities - range from cognitive-behavioural to psychoanalytic therapy, family therapy, humanistic, existential, transpersonal, strategic, and other psychological modalities such as group and residential modalities.
  3. social modalities - includes brief interventions, harm reduction, and recovery management.

For more information see the Biological Modalities, Psychological Modalities, or Social Modalities section.

(1) Source: Institute of Medicine (1990). Broadening the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press.

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II. ADDICTION TREATMENT SETTINGS & STAGES

Another way to look at addiction treatment is as a continuum of separate but inter-dependent treatment services or stages. These distinct services, officially termed levels of care ¹, are designed to match the severity of an individual's addiction with sufficient levels of supervision, clinical skill sets, and treatment intensity.

The American Society for Addiction Medicine (ASAM) identifies five levels of care as follows:

Level 0.5 - Early intervention
Level I - Outpatient treatment
Level II - Intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization
Level III - Residential/inpatient treatment
Level IV - Medically-managed intensive inpatient treatment

(1) Source: ASAM PPC-2R

The purpose of defining levels of care, therefore, is not to decide which level is better than the other but, rather, to recommend the most appropriate intervention based on client characteristics.

For more information on addiction treatment levels of care (including stage-specific treatment resources) please refer to the Understanding the Stages of Alcohol and Drug Treatment section.  

Note: Detoxification is sometimes called a distinct treatment modality but is more appropriately considered a precursor of treatment, because it is designed to treat the acute physiological effects of stopping drug use. However, detoxification is included in this section for convenience.

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III. THEORIES OF ADDICTION AND ITS TREATMENT

Why do individuals continue to abuse drugs and/or alcohol despite increasingly negative consequences? Health professionals, academics and individuals who have been personally impacted by addiction are typically at the forefront of addiction treatment program development and it is their legacy that provides the present continuum of services in our communities.

The debate over what is the best model ¹ of addiction treatment and how programming is developed remains a point of contention.

Margolis and Zweben identify four theoretical models that have been developed to treat addiction:

  1. the disease model
  2. the learning theory model
  3. the psychoanalytic model
  4. the family systems model

Although these models share some similarities, the ideas and concepts behind these models were developed independently by individuals with very different backgrounds and philosophies.

Over the years, however, a new model has developed that recognizes the complexity of alcohol and drug addiction. By integrating these four models, the Biopsychosocial model recognizes that there are multiple pathways to addiction. Moreover, the Biopsychosocial model asserts that genetic predisposition, learned behaviour, the need for self-medication, and the impact of one's family can vary from person to person.

For more information on the models and theories used in addiction treatment visit the Biopsychosocial section.

(1) Note: in this article, the term "model" is used interchangeably with the term "theory."
(2) Source: Treating Patients with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems: An Integrated Approach (2001) Robert D. Margolis, Joan E. Zweben

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IV. DRUG-SPECIFIC TREATMENTS

Some drugs such as alcohol, heroin, and cocaine have their own treatments.

Certain drug-specific treatments, known as biological treatments, reduce cravings, block the mood-altering effect, or discourage use by creating nausea when combined with the abused drug.

Psychological treatments such as aversion therapy and the Matrix Model have been designed for specific types of abused drugs.

Other treatments are designed to target specific populations of drug users that use specific drugs. Examples of these are heroin users that spread disease through sharing needles infected with HIV/AIDS, and Hepatitis, or alcohol abusers who drink and drive.

For more information visit the Biological Modalities,Psychological Modalities, or the Social Modalities section.

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V. ADDICTION TREATMENT FOR SPECIAL POPULATIONS

Special addiction treatment approaches have been designed in recognition of the many special populations that exist in our society. Research has also been conducted specific to individuals based on age, race, or for groups considered at-risk for infectious disease or complicated pregnancy. Both general-population treatment and treatment for special populations have their advantages and disadvantages.

Please refer to the Special Populations section for addiction treatment information categorized by age (adolescent, senior), gender (male, female), race, occupation, at-risk populations (pregnant mothers, injection drug users, homosexuals, homeless, sex workers, etc.), and criminal justice.

People with co-existing drug addiction, mental illness and/or chronic pain are also considered a special population. Treatment resources for co-existing addiction and chronic pain or behavioral disorders can be found in the Dual Diagnosis section. ¹

(1) Note: other terms for dual diagnosis: dual disorders, co-existing disorders, co-morbidity, co-occurring disorders, double trouble.

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RESOURCES

The resources provided below are designed with the addiction professional in mind on such topics as best practices, treatment planning, case management, ethics, professional development, etc.

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I. PRINTED RESOURCES

Printed Resources - General Information for Clinicians on Addiction Treatment

The Addiction Counselor's Desk Reference (2005) is a compilation of information about addictive disorders, their consequences, and treatment. Robert H. Coombs, William A. Howatt.

Addiction Recovery Tools: A Practical Handbook (2001) presents verified recovery tools by cataloging various therapeutic tools for addiction counsellors. Answers the questions: When and how does it work? Why does it work and with whom? What are the practical guidelines for success? What are the potential pitfalls? Robert H. Coombs.

Addictions: A Comprehensive Guidebook (1999) is organized into seven parts that range from the prevalence of certain addictions to their identification and treatment to the social effects of these addictions. Contains nearly all of the basic information a professional or graduate student needs to learn about or treat substance abuse. Barbara S. McCrady, Elizabeth E. Epstein.

Alcohol & Drug Problems: A Practical Guide for Counsellors (1993) Betty-Anne M. Howard.

Drug Abuse Handbook(1998) contains detailed discussions of drug-related issues in criminalistics, pathology, and toxicology, impairment testing and the pharmacokinetics of abused drugs. Focuses on the most pressing drug abuse-related problems of today. Steven B. Karch.

Patient Records and Addiction Treatment (2000) is a textbook on addiction treatment management, including patient records, confidentiality, patient placement criteria, and quality improvement. Landon & Sherry Kimbrough.

The Practitioner's Guide to Psychoactive Drugs(1997) includes information on treatment procedures and is organized by disorder rather than drug class. Alan J. Gelenberg, Ellen L. Bassuk.

Rising from the Dead: Stories of Women's Spiritual Journeys to Sobriety (2007) examines barriers that are specific to helping professionals and pastoral counselors, offering suggestions for the use of story in pastoral ministry and strategies for counseling. Patricia D. Nanoff.

Sourcebook on substance abuse: Etiology, Epidemiology, Assessment, and Treatment (1999) is an empirically-based reference on substance abuse disorders from multiple perspectives - etiology, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Serves as a reference to health care providers. Peggy j. Ott, Ralph E. Tarter, Robert T. Ammerman.

Treating the Alcoholic: A Developmental Model of Recovery (1985) offers a model of treatment that replaces the notion of abstinence as a static state and translates the Twelve Steps into psychological terms, particularly the crucial notion of "loss of control." Stephanie Brown.

Treating Alcoholism: Helping Your Clients Find the Road to Recovery (2004) teaches the addiction counselor how to use the 12 steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. Robert R. Perkinson.

Treating Drinkers and Drug Users in the Community (2004) is designed for professionals working with substance users and discusses treatments for adolescents and adults. Tom Waller, Daphne Rumball.

Understanding Drugs of Abuse: The Processes of Addiction, Treatment, and Recovery is a primer for students, practioners, and the lay public. A textbook for courses in addiction, a reference manual for professionals, and a guide for parents. (1994) Mim J. Landry.

Wiley Concise Guides to Mental Health: Substance Use Disorders(2006) is a complete overview of the diagnosis, treatment, research, emerging trends, and other critical information about chemical addictions. Both biomedical and psychiatric conditions and complications are covered. Nicholas R. Lessa, Walter F. Scanlon.

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Printed Resources - Clinical Supervision in Addiction Treatment

Clinical Supervision in Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counselling: Principles, Models, Methods (1993) outlines the knowledge base and core competencies that substance abuse supervisors will need in the coming years. David J. Powell, Archie Brodsky

Printed Resources - Compliance in Addiction Treatment

Improving Compliance with Alcoholism Treatment (1997) provides a compendium of strategies for enhancing client compliance to treatment as well as therapist compliance with treatment protocols. Kathleen Carroll, Project Match Monograph Series Volume 6, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

Improving Treatment Compliance: Counseling and Systems Strategies (1999) provides clinical recommendations for getting clients to attend treatment and motivate them to work on the problems that are causing pain and dysfunction. Dennis C. Daley, Allan Zuckoff.

Printed Resources - Counselor Certification in Addiction Treatment

Addiction Counseling Review: Preparing for Comprehensive, Certification, and Licensing Examinations (2005) is an overview of all the knowledge those training as addiction counselors need to pass final exams in their academic programs or certifications. Robert H. Coombs.

Study Guide to Substance Abuse Treatment: A Companion to the American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment, Fourth Edition (2008) is a question-and-answer companion that allows you to evaluate your mastery of the subject matter. Robert E. Hales, James A. Bourgeois, Narriman C. Shahrokh, Marc Galanter.

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Printed Resources - Counseling in Addiction Treatment

Becoming an Addictions Counselor: A Comprehensive Text(2007) addresses the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for professional preparation. Devotes significant sections to coverage of ethics and confidentiality, treatment planning, and case management. Peter L. Myers, Norman R. Salt.

Chemical Dependency Counseling: A Practical Guide (2nd Edition) (2002) is a manual for counsellors that combines traditional twelve step program with cognitive behavioral theory and motivational enhancement therapy. Also covers other treatment issues such as the therapeutic alliance, screening, detoxification, assessment, treatment planning, crisis management, etc. Robert R. Perkinson.

Counselling for Alcohol Problems(2001) provides clear guidance for counsellors and demonstrates the need to treat every client as an individual, attempting to understand and hence enable the client to understand, what they are doing and why. Richard Velleman.

Introduction to Chemical Dependency Counseling(2001) offers a whole set of specific techniques that will help clinicians develop into artful practitioners. Jerome David Levin.

Learning the Language of Addiction Counseling (2004) is designed to meet the training needs of new and experienced addiction counselors. Geraldine A. Miller.

A Primer for Today's Substance Abuse Counselor (1991) is written especially for counselors who in recovery from drugs or alcohol addiction. Rostyslaw Robak

Psychotherapy and Substance Abuse: A Practitioner's Handbook (1996) covers a range of treatment approaches for alcohol and substance abuse. Describes specific techniques that can be utilized by addiction treatment professionals working in any type of clinical setting. Arnold M. Washton.

The Therapist's Notebook for Integrating Spirituality in Counselling II: More Homework, Handouts, and Activities for Use in Psychotherapy(2006) is the second book of a two-book resource that provides practical interventions from experts with a range of theoretical perspectives. Karen B. Helmeke, Catherine Ford Sori (Eds.).

The Treatment of Drinking Problems: A Guide for the Helping Professions (2003) is a source book for the treatment of alcohol problems for all professionals who encounter them. Griffith Edwards, E. Jane Marshall, Christopher C.H. Cook.

The Treatment of Shame and Guilt in Alcoholism Counseling (1989) sheds light directly on the process of healing internalized shame and guilt. Ronald T. Potter-Efron, Patricia S. Potter-Efron.

Understanding and Counseling Persons with Alcohol, Drug, and Behavioral Addictions (1998) Howard John Clineball.

Working with Substance Misusers: A Guide to Theory and Practice (2002) is a user-friendly introduction for students and new staff offering the basics to the practice of working in addiction treatment. Trudi Petersen, Andrew McBride.

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Printed Resources - Ethics and Addiction Treatment

Ethics for Addictions Professionals provides a comprehensive view of the ethical issues that are present in the addiction field, from Employee Assistance Programs to treatment and aftercare. LeClair Bissell, James E. Royce.

Printed Resources - Marketing of Addiction Treatment

Alcoholism Treatment Marketing: Beyond TV Ads and Speeches (1989) through interviews with treatment providers, referral sources, and former clients of treatment facilities, and in major reviews of literature on the subject, this book presents primary research and general research findings to provide practical marketing implications. Donald R. Self.

Printed Resources - Medical Personnel and Addiction Treatment

ABC of Alcohol (4th Ed.) (2005) contains new sections on the impact of alcohol on Accident and Emergency departments and surgical practice as well as the potential dangers of the interaction of alcohol and legal and illegal drugs. This practical, well illustrated guide is an ideal reference for general practitioners and all health and social professionals who deal with people who have alcohol problems. Alex Paton, Robin Touquet.

Addiction Nursing: Perspectives on Professional and Clinical Practice(1997) provides one of the few handbooks on areas of clinical issues and practice, interventions, management, education and research on aspects of addiction nursing. G. Hussein Rassool, Mike Gafoor.

Addiction Treatment: Theory and Practice(2000) developed by a nurse with work experience in both nursing and psychology environments, this publication presents the caregiver with a brief global perspective of different types of addictions, techniques for identifying and assessing the addicted client, and strategies for effective change. Sandra Rasmussen

Alcohol and Drug Abuse as Encountered in Office Practice (1991) serves as a manual for physicians practicing in a private office setting to recognize and recommend appropriate treatment for patients believe to be substance abusers. Frank L. Iber.

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Abuse (1986) is useful to physicians in emergency rooms, general hospitals, and office practices as well as to students. Sidney Cohen.

Drug and Alcohol Abuse: A Clinical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment (5th Ed.) (2000) is written to serve the needs of clinicians handling emergency problems, and the student seeking an introduction to abused substances. Marc Alan Schuckit.

The Misuse of Drugs (1997) examines some of the major questions surrounding current drug treatment and ways in which medical professionals can improve the general health of their drug using patients aside from their drug misuse. British Medical Association.

Symptoms and Signs of Substance Misuse (2002) is a quick reference for all doctors, general practitioners, and healthcare personnel. An authoritative guide to the symptoms and signs of drug misuse and the basic principles of treatment for common drugs. Margaret M. Stark, J. Jason Payne-James.

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Printed Resources - Pharmacy and Addiction Treatment

Drug Misuse and Community Pharmacyprovides the reader with a grounding in the historical, research and practical aspects of the role of community pharmacy in the management of drug misuse. Janie Sheridan, John Strang.

Printed Resources - Psychiatry and Addiction Treatment

The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse (2004) includes 94 distinguished contributors that cover the latest basic and clinical perspectives on the nature of addiction, an overview of affordable treatments, treatment for specific drugs, treatment approaches, and special populations. Marc Galanter, Herbert D. Kleber.

Concise Guide to Treatment of Alcoholism and Addictions (2001) is a concise overview of addiction treatment issues relevant to the psychiatrist in the trenches, and is a distillation of the authors' clinical experience as well as a review of the literature. Avram H. Mack, John E. Franklin, Richard J. Frances.

Treatment of Substance Use Disorders (2002) is a compendium of journal articles on the latest advances in addiction treatment and serves as a quick guide for psychiatrists specializing in addiction. Covers four major substance categories - alcohol, benzodiazepines, opiates, cocaine, and nicotine. Kevin Allen Sevarino (Ed.), American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

Printed Resources - Psychology and Addiction Treatment

Treating Alcohol and Drug Problems in Psychotherapy Practice: Doing What Works(2006) is written specifically for the office-based psychotherapist, this guide describes how to detect, assess, diagnose, and treat clients presenting with a range of alcohol and drug problems. Arnold M. Washton, Joan E. Zweben.

Printed Resources - Social Work and Addiction Treatment

Alcoholism Treatment: A Social Work Perspective (1995) covers the biological and psychological factors in alcoholism. Provides an ecosystems approach to alcoholism and its treatment. Gender, minority, and gay-lesbian issues are integrated throughout. Katherine S. Van Wormer.

Responding to the Oppression of Addiction: Canadian Social Work Perspectives (2003) Rick Csiernik, William S. Rowe.

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Printed Resources - Treatment Planning and Addiction Treatment

Treatment Planning for Person-centered Care: The Road to Mental Health and Addiction Recovery (2004) puts the concept of individualized service planning into understandable language for all therapists. A process-oriented book that guides therapist in how to engage clients in building collaborative treatment plans that result in better outcomes. Neal Adams, Diane M. Grieder.

Printed Resources - Workbooks for Addiction Treatment

The Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Patient Workbook (2003) is a workbook for clients based on the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. Robert R. Perkinson.

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II. ONLINE RESOURCES

Websites Specific to Locating Addiction Treatment Facilities

Canada Drug Rehab
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator (US)

For more listings see the Alcohol & Drug Rehab Directory section.

Websites Specific to Addiction Treatment Professional Associations

Canadian Addiction Counsellors Certification Federation
Canadian Network of Substance Abuse and Allied Professionals
NAADAC - The Association for Addiction Professionals

Online Resources - General Information on Addiction Treatment

A Quick Guide to Finding Effective Alcohol and/or Drug Addiction Treatment (September 2001) instructs family members to consider such things as the setting, length of care, and philosophical approach when finding a treatment program for a loved one. Also includes 12 questions to consider when selecting a treatment program. Publication PHD877.

Online Resources - Best Practices and Addiction Treatment

Best Practices: Substance Abuse Treatment and Rehabilitation (1998) provides current baseline information concerning substance abuse treatment and rehabilitation. Health Canada. Cat. H39-438/1998E.

Principles of Drug Dependence Treatment (March 2008) is a discussion paper that outlines nine key principles for the development of services for treatment of drug use disorders. United Nations Office of Drug Control (UNODC).

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Online Resources - Case Management and Addiction Treatment

Treatment for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse: Opportunities for Coordination (1994) Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 11. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). DHHS Publication No. 94-2075

Online Resources - Cost-Benefit Analysis and Addiction Treatment

Measuring and Improving Cost, Cost-Effectiveness, and Cost-Benefit for Substance Abuse Treatment Programs (1999) offers substance abuse treatment program managers tools with which to calculate the costs of their programs and investigate the relationship between those costs and treatment outcomes. NCADI # BKD340. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

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Online Resources - Cross-Addiction and Addiction Treatment

Addicting Drugs are All Cross-Addicting(Winter 2004) explains that people addicted to a drug is potentially addicted to all drugs. Dr. James West, Betty Ford Center.

Online Resources - Evaluation of Addiction Treatment

International Guidelines for the Evaluation of Treatment Services and Systems for Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders (2000) is intended for policy makers, commissioners of treatment services and personnel who want to know more about research evaluation and want to undertake evaluation studies. John Marsden, Alan Ogborne, Michael Farrell, Brian Rush, World Health Organization (WHO).

Online Resources - Medical Professionals and Addiction Treatment

Leadership Conference on Medical Education in Substance Abuse (December 2004) highlights the ONDCP conference which brought together leaders of private sector organizations, Federal agencies, organized medicine, and licensure and certification bodies to discuss ways to enhance the training of physicians in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of alcohol and drug use disorders, including prescription drug abuse. Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP).

Medical professionals may also want to visit the Addiction Screening, Brief Intervention, and Assessment Facts section.

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Online Resources - Nutrition and Addiction Treatment

Nutrtional status of alcoholics before and after treatment (1981) Scholarly Article that explains the relationship of alcoholics nutrition before and after treatment. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Online Resources - Outcome Assessment and Addiction Treatment

Applied Issues in Treatment Outcome Assessment will familiarize the reader with a variety of fundamental issues that arise in the conduct of outcome evaluation in alcoholism treatment. J. Scott Tonigan, Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Addictions (CASAA).

Treatment Outcome Studies is an online research bibliography. Rutgers University Center of Alcohol Studies.

Online Resources - Professional Development and Addiction Treatment

Addiction Counseling Competencies (2006) reviews the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of professional practice. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) 21. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). DHHS Publication SMA 06-4171.

The Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) offers certification information and distance education.

CACCF Approved Educational Institutions is a list of approved facilities that offer addiction curriculum for Canadian addiction professionals. Course offerings include full-time, part-time, continuing education, and long distance learning.

Challenges of the Addiction Treatment Workforce (December 2006) is a framework for discussion that summarizes trends in addictions treatment and the challenges that confront the treatment workforce.

Competencies for Substance Abuse Treatment Clinical Supervisors (2007) Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 21-A. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

Directory of Addiction Study Programs (DASP) is a comprehensive list of institutions offering a certificate, associate, bachelor, master and/or doctoral program in substance use disorders. Also included in this directory are institutions offering a concentration, specialty or minor in the addiction field.

Directory of Education & Training lists NAADAC-approved education providers that offer training and education for addiction professionals who are seeking to become certified in addiction counselling.

Treatnet are materials that have been designed to improve the substance abuse treatment practices of health care professionals around the world. Includes PowerPoint presentations. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

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Online Resources - Research on Addiction Treatment

The Facts About Addiction Is a bibliography showing the effectiveness and cost benefits of addiction treatment. Institute for Research, Education, and Training in Addictions - Northeast ATTC.

CESAR is a database of articles on addiction trends and issues for policymakers; prevention specialists, treatment and health care providers; law enforcement officials; researchers and academicians; and media representatives.

Effective Interventions Unit: The Effectiveness of Treatment for Opiate Dependent Drug Users: An International Systematic Review of the Evidence (July 2002) identifies, reviews, and appraises the quality of reviews and trials in the international research literature on drug misuse concerning the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Scottish Executive Drug Misuse Research Programme. 

NIDA InfoFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction (August 2006) is a fact sheet covering research finding on addiction treatment approaches including medication and behavior therapy. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

Profile: Substance Abuse Treatment and Rehabilitation in Canada (1999) provides current information on the scope and nature of substance abuse services at the federal, provincial and territorial levels. Health Canada. Cat. H39-439/1998E.

The Science of Addiction - Drugs, Brain, Behavior  (April 2007) is a booklet that reveals groundbreaking discoveries about the brain that have revolutionized our understanding of drug addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). NIH Publication 07-5605.

For more information on research see the Addiction Research section.

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Online Resources - Retention in Addiction Treatment

Retention describes the ongoing participation of a client/patient in treatment (outpatient or inpatient) through to program completion.

 Beyond the Therapeutic Alliance: Keeping the Drug-Dependent Individual in Treatment (1997) reviews current treatment research on the best ways to retain patients in drug abuse treatment. Research monograph 165, NTIS # 97-181606. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

Online Resources - Teens and Addiction Treatment

Workshop on Best Practices in Treatment and Rehabilitation for Youth with Substance Use Problems(2002) highlights the findings of a workshop held in Ottawa November, 2001. Cat. H39-599/2001-2E

Youth Detoxification and Residential Treatment Literature Review: Best and Promising Practices in Adolescent Substance Use Treatment Final Report (June 2006) identifies, critiques, and reports the evidence and best practices in the literature as it pertains to the appropriateness, effectiveness, feasibility, and quality of treatment approaches among a youth population in detoxification and residential treatment settings. Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission (AADAC).

For more information on teen addiction treatment see Adolescents in the Special Population section.

Online Resources - Therapy Manuals and Addiction Treatment

Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse (August 2003) Jose Szapocznik, PhD, Olga Hervis, MSW, Seth Schwartz, PhD, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Publication 03-4751

Additional online therapy manuals can be found in the Special Populations, Biopsychosocial, and Psychological Modalities sections.

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Online Resources - Treatment Policy and Addiction Treatment

These resources provide suggestions on implementing effective policy for treatment providers that are interested in improving outcomes:

Bill of Client Rights is produced by The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health for their programs and services located in Ontario.

The Change Book: A Blueprint for Technology Transfer (2nd Edition) (2004) is a tool to help implement change initiatives that will improve prevention and treatment outcomes. It is designed for administrators, staff, educators and policy makers. Using this manual will increase knowledge about effective technology transfer methods and will build skills in implementing change. Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC). See also The Change Workbook which is a companion to the Change Book.

Code of Ethics (December 2004) is 9 principles of ethical conduct for addiction professionals. NAADAC.

Cultural Competence in Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy Planning, and Program Development (1995) provides background reading in cultural competency and will discuss what constitutes culturally competent treatment, why it is an important component of counseling, and implications for program development, administration, and policy planning. Addiction Technology Transfer Center of New England.

The Impact of Facility No Smoking Policies and the Promotion of Smoking Cessation on Alcohol and Drug Rehabilitation Program Outcomes: A Review of the Literature (September 2001) reviews recent literature that provides guidance to address the questions of whether or not to deal with smoking in addiction treatment centers, and how to do so.

It's Time to Stop Kicking People Out of Addiction Treatment (April 2005) explores one practice - administratively discharging clients from addiction treatment - which the author suspects will be judged harshly by historians. William L. White, Christy K. Scott, Michael L. Dennis, Michael G. Boyle, Counselor Magazine.

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III. VIDEO RESOURCES

MAC Publishing is the source for Claudia Black books, audios, and videos. Claudia Black, MSW, Ph.D. is a renowned author and trainer internationally recognized for her pioneering and contemporary work with family systems and addictive disorders.

Kelly Productions is the home of Father Martin addiction treatment resources. Best known for his Chalk Talk ™ series, Father Martin covers families, recovery, and spirituality in a wide selection available in DVD, VHS, and audio cassette. Claudia Black material is also available on this website.

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